{BEST} explained how coronavirus infect? how it spread in body?

{BEST} explained how coronavirus infects? how it spread in the body?
Complications happen due to the coronavirus infection.
how coronavirus enters into the host after the infection? 


Coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped, RNA viruses.
There are 4 categories of coronaviruses:

structure of coronavirus with genetic material
coronavirus genetic material

alpha and beta, originated from bats and rodents;
gamma and delta, originated from avian species (bird species).

Coronaviruses are responsible for a wide range of diseases in many animals, including livestock and pets.

In humans, they were thought to cause mild, self-limiting respiratory infections until 2002, when a beta-coronavirus crossed species barriers from bats to a mammalian host, before jumping to humans, causing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, epidemic.


More recently, another beta-coronavirus is responsible for the serious Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, MERS, started in 2012.
The novel coronavirus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, COVID-19, is also a beta-coronavirus.

The genome of the virus is fully sequenced and appears to be most similar to a strain in bats, suggesting that it also originated from bats.


The virus is also very similar to the SARS-coronavirus and is therefore named SARS-coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV 2.


At the moment, it’s not yet clear if the virus jumped directly from bats to humans, or if there is a mammalian intermediate host.


Coronavirus genome is a large, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule that contains all information necessary for the making of viral components.


The RNA is coated with structural proteins, forming a complex known as the nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid is enclosed in an envelope, which is basically a LIPID membrane with embedded proteins.

From the envelope, club-like spikes emanate, giving the appearance of a crown. This is where the “corona” name came from.

Why washing hand and face is so important for precaution against coronavirus infection?


The integrity of the envelope is essential for viral infection and is the Achilles’ heel (weakness despite overall strength) of the virus because the lipid membrane can easily be destroyed by lipid solvents such as detergents, alcohol and some disinfectants. Enveloped viruses are the easiest to inactivate when they are outside a host.


How does the virus enter the host cell?


In order to infect a host cell, the spikes of the virus must BIND to a molecule on the cell surface (spikes like a key to get inside a cell), called a receptor.

When the new coronavirus gets inside a cell in your body where it takes over the cells internal machinery repurposing it to build the components of new viruses.
coronavirus entering host cell and making genetic material
coronavirus making genetic its genetic material after entering in host


when an infected person talks cough or sneezes droplets carrying the virus may land in your mouth or nose and then move into your lungs once inside your body the virus comes in contact with cells in your throat nose or lungs one spike on the virus inserts into a receptor molecule on your healthy cell membrane like a key in a lock this action allows the virus to get inside your cell

The specificity of this binding explains why viruses are usually species-specific – they have receptors in certain species and not others.

Why it is so much difficulty in making drug or vaccine against coronavirus infection?


Host jumping is usually triggered by mutations in spike proteins which change them in a way that they now can bind to a receptor in a new species.

The novel coronavirus appears to use the same receptor as SARS-coronavirus for entry to human cells, and that receptor is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2.

Infection usually starts with cells of the respiratory mucosa, then spreads to epithelial cells of alveoli in the lungs. Receptor binding is followed by fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, and the release of nucleocapsid into the cell.

What happens when the virus enters into the cell of humans?


The virus then uses the host machinery to replicate, producing viral RNAs and proteins. These are then assembled into new viral particles, called virions, by budding into intracellular membranes. The new virions are released and the host cell dies.

Uncontrolled growth of the virus destroys respiratory tissues, producing symptoms like:

  • cough
  • fever
  • tiredness
  • difficulty breathing (severe cases)



The infection triggers the body’s inflammatory response, which brings immune cells to the site to fight the virus. While inflammation is an important defense mechanism, it may become excessive and cause damage to the body’s own tissues, contributing to the severity of the disease.

In an otherwise healthy person, there is a good chance that the virus is eventually eliminated and the patient recovers, although some may require supportive treatments. On the other hand, people with a weakened immune system or underlying chronic diseases may progress to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can be fatal.


What can be the severity of coronavirus infection?


The severity due to coronavirus infection can be
  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Critical


In the case of mild, there might be some asymptomatic,
80% are gonna have a mild case of Coronavirus and remember the definition by mild we mean you don't need to be hospitalized
80% of people do not need to be hospitalized they just need to be isolated.

20% of people will need to be hospitalized of those probably about half are going to need to be in the ICU and of those about half will need to be on respirators.

Anybody who has respiratory issues already you're at high risk if you had a long resection if you've had

  • COPD if you're on oxygen
  • sleep apnea
  • poorly-controlled asthma
  • high blood pressure
  • old aged peoples

you're at risk guys so that's a lot of people real quick there's a direct correlation with coronavirus.

What are the ways for the transmission of coronavirus infection?


It is a respiratory virus so remember this virus is airborne and it also spread by contact that's how it's transmitted so if you're around somebody who has the coronavirus and they sneeze and you're within six feet and you take a deep breath you have a very good chance of catching infection due to coronavirus.

If you kiss or if you hug someone who infected or carrier then you may have the infection of coronavirus.


What is the pathway followed by the bacteria for causing infection of coronavirus?


COVID-19 is a respiratory illness so the virus will make its way into your nose throat and then will go into your Airways this is your lungs Our lungs have little air pockets in them they're called alveoli there are little air pockets helps in gas exchange (oxygenation process) exchange between the oxygen and the co2 


What is the life span of coronavirus on different objects?


coronavirus can survive on surfaces like, stainless steel might be two or three days you know plastics wood it's different it's anywhere from a few hours to a couple of days so be aware while doing shopping, on your shopping cart may contain some coronavirus which may be used by someone infected person.


What happens in the lungs after the infection due to coronavirus infection?


After the coronavirus infection virus enters into the cell to produce a bunch of little progeny and to do this it replicates itself and later on makes protein due to those protein cells dies.

This one little cell dies but then what happens because the cell dies there causes a huge inflammatory response in your body. As a result of inflammatory responses 

  • interleukin-1
  • interleukin-6
  • tumor necrosis factor

these all rash in your lung so your body starts to amount a new response and it actually your immune response, when it starts to rapidly get out of control, is actually how you die it's your own body trying to save you ends up really just killing you.

what happens to the patients after getting coronavirus infection?


when the cell dies there is a huge immune response little air pockets in alveoli start in getting fluid-filled plus debris It will lead to the start lower areas of pneumonia oxygen exchange decreases in lungs that leads to ARDs (acute respiratory distress syndrome)

At this time you can't exchange oxygen your lungs are literally dying with fluid you can't breathe, you're literally suffocating.

80% of people of the infected people will have flu-like symptoms.


What happens to the coronavirus infected patient`s lung filled with mucous?


If the COVID-19 infected patient`s lung is filled with mucous then in this case patient starts to suffocate due to lack of oxygen he needs to breathe properly and we need to put a patient on a ventilator because he is going to tire out.


Due to the lack of oxygen, your muscles will tire out because your lungs are filling up with fluid (this interstitial fluid as well as the alveolar fluid).

Due to a persistent lack of oxygen due to infection a person may die so, the treatment is to put you on a ventilator to breathe properly.


What may happen to COVID-19 affected critical patients if not supported by a ventilator?


If the patient is not provided with the support of a ventilator then in this situation patient will suffer from suffocation due to lack of oxygen and further, it may lead to necrosis in the alveolar tissue and can lead to what's called sepsis to your lung and may cause organ failures.


How COVID-19 may result in multiple organ failure?

Due to lack of oxygen to lung tissue sepsis may occur in the lung and other organs will suffer from the hypoxia-like heart so what happens when you can't have enough oxygen for your heart, the heart will undergo cardiac arrest.

Due to heart dysfunctioning, the liver doesn't get enough oxygen or blood flow and the liver may get inflamed resulting in liver dysfunction due to this toxicity will increase in the body and can lead to liver failure.


If kidneys don't get enough blood flow it may result in kidney failure and at this time patients must need to be supported by dialysis machines.


What complications can be seen in the patient after getting pneumonia after coronavirus infection?


After getting the infection of coronavirus if the patient develops pneumonia which can range from non-life threatening to severe recovery time for these patients could be anywhere from a few days to weeks for some severe and critical cases.
Though symptoms can escalate into acute respiratory distress syndrome an ARDS is an illness that happens when fluid builds up in the lungs inflammation triggers a flood of immune cells that are meant to target the infection they're usually isolated to infected areas but sometimes the body goes overboard which is when the immune cells start killing anything in their path including healthy cells.
ARDS is often fatal in critical cases it can lead to respiratory failure requiring advanced life support and this is most likely when patients head to the ICU.

ARDS treatment includes supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation the goal is to get more oxygen into the bloodstream since the lungs can't when this treatment doesn't work the lungs are basically too flooded to get any oxygen into your bloodstream that's the cause of most COVID-19 deaths and even when a patient survives this phase they could be left with permanent lung damage.
ct scan of lung showing honeycomb effect after coronavirus infection
ct scan of lung showing honeycomb effect after coronavirus infection

SARS punched holes and some infected people's lungs giving them a honeycomb effect and these lesions have been seen in people affected by the novel coronavirus.

If there is coronavirus infection to a person, how much will he take to die?


In early studies found that most people who die of the disease will do so within14 to 19 days and on average people who recover are released from the hospital after two and a half weeks.

In the case of most critical cases recovery could take months once a patient is in the recovery period it's possible that they could still be contagious. These people should work with their doctors and public health officials to determine when they're no longer a risk.

As of now, there is no vaccine for the virus so the best way to avoid getting sick is to avoid being exposed COVID-19 spreads easily
It spreads from person to person through coughing and sneezing so wash your hands often and avoid close contact with people who are sick and clean and disinfect surfaces that you use daily.


Why do we cough after the infection of coronavirus?


After the infection of coronavirus, the quantity of pathogen and mucous due to the inflammation increases rapidly into the lung to expel all these things outside the lung the infected COVID-19 patient couches.

The explanation for this is:-
The mucus that lines your trachea bronchi and bronchioles in a healthy body hair-like cilia lining the tubes constantly push the mucus and germs out of your airways where you might expel them by coughing normally cells of your immune system attack viruses and germs that make it past your mucus and cilia and enter your alveoli.

However, if your immune system is weakened like in the case of a coronavirus infection the virus can overwhelm your immune cells and your bronchioles and alveoli become inflamed as your immune system attacks the multiplying viruses the inflammation can cause your alveoli to fill with fluid making it difficult for your body to get the oxygen it needs you could develop lobular pneumonia where one lobe of your lungs is affected or you could have bronchopneumonia that affects many areas of both lungs

What is the complication arises due to pneumonia in coronavirus injected patient?


pneumonia may cause difficulty breathing chest pain coughing fever and chills confusion headache muscle pain and fatigue it can also lead to more serious complications respiratory failure occurs when your breathing becomes so difficult that you need a machine called a ventilator to help you breathe these are the machines that save lives.


If the vaccine is discovered for coronavirus what can be the mechanism for its action?


the vaccine against the coronavirus the basic idea is that you would get a shot that contains faint versions of the virus. 

The vaccine would expose your body to a version of the virus that is too weak to cause infection but just strong enough to stimulate an immune response within a few weeks cells in your immune system would make markers called antibodies.

The antibodies would be specific for only the coronavirus or specifically its spike protein antibodies then attached to the virus and prevent it from attaching to your cells your immune system then responds to signals from the antibodies by consuming and destroying the clumps of viruses if you then catch the real virus at a later stage your body would recognize it and destroy it.



How does coronavirus infect patients after entering into the body?


The structure of coronavirus has multiple parts inside the virus lies the genetic encoding that allows the virus to hijack human cells and turn them into virus factories.
A protein encapsulate s' the genetic material known as the viral envelope on the surface of the virus.

The virus to gain entry to human cells they most likely attach to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors on the cell membrane allowing the virus entry the exact mechanism for this is not known most likely as shown here the human cell ingests the virus in a process known as endocytosis.

Once inside the cytoplasm the endosome opens to reveal the virus's genetic material a single-stranded RNA the virus hijacks the cells machinery to replicate the RNA in n proteins and uses the endoplasmic reticulum to form its M protein outer layer and the all-important s protein after replication the virus is carried by the Golgi bodies out of the cell in a process known as exocytosis.

So that it can infect other cells meanwhile the stress of viral production on the endoplasmic reticulum eventually leads to apoptosis or cell death it should be noted that the mechanism of action for 2019 novel coronavirus is unknown.



{BEST} explained how coronavirus infect? how it spread in body? {BEST} explained how coronavirus infect? how it spread in body? Reviewed by OMNIT ARYAN MAURYA on 06 April Rating: 5

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