Stem cell therapy on coronavirus (COVID-19)

Till now there is no confirmed antivirus therapy for a patient who is infected coronavirus 2019-nCoV, COVID-19 but stemcells are performing very well in treatment. Most of the infected people are receiving supportive care to help relieve symptoms. For severe cases, treatment includes supportive care to vital organs so that they can function well and the patient can survive. Out of total confirmed cases numerous patients recovered till the date.



Stem cell therapy for coronavirus treatment. 


Among affected people from coronavirus(COVID-19), about 20% of the patients were severe and some died of respiratory failure or multiple organ failure. Therefore, it is urgent to find a safe and effective therapeutic approach to pneumonia patients infected coronavirus 2019-nCoV (COVID-19).

In coronavirus (COVID-19) researchers found that they are having HIV-like mutation that means its ability to bind with human cells could be up to 1,000 times as strong as the Sars (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus.

Reports submitted by scientists on coronavirus:


According to recent research by scientists in China and Europe. Scientists showed that Sars entered the human body by binding with a receptor protein called ACE2 on a plasma membrane.


And some early studies suggested that the new coronavirus, which shares about 80 percent of the genetic structure of Sars, might follow a similar path.



Several clinical trials are going on to inspect the safety and efficiency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) therapy for pneumonia patients infected with coronavirus 2019-nCoV (COVID-19).


The scientists found that infusions of Umbilical Cord-MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cells) significantly improved liver function in decompensated liver cirrhosis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients, increased the survival rate in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients.


Mesenchymal Stem Cells could significantly reduce the pathological changes of lung and inhibit the cell-mediated immune-inflammatory response induced by the influenza virus in the animal model.



Casestudy on coronavirus treatment by the help of stem cells


In Beijing, china Four patients who were infected from (coronavirus) COVID-19 patients who received stem cell therapy while in a serious condition have been discharged from hospital after full recovery, and the clinical trial of the therapy will be further expanded, Vice Minister of Science and Technology Xu Nanping, was quoted by the paper as saying.

The damage to lung tissue can be life-threatening, and stem cell therapy is expected to help repair the damage to the tissue and cells due to the coronavirus(COVID-19).

Recently, three kinds of stem cells are used in treatments

1.     Mesenchymal stem cells 
2.     Lung stem cells 
3.     Embryonic stem cells.


Researchers usually inject stem cell products into the lungs during the treatment of coronavirus (COVID-19).

By doing this researcher expect Stem cells can improve the immune microenvironment in the lungs and reduce the risk of pulmonary failure caused by inflammation because stem cells have the potential of self-renewal and differentiation, and can develop into corresponding functional cells and alveoli, and then repair the damaged tissue.

ASYMPTOMATIC CASES of coronavirus


According to WHO about 80 percent of the population infected with the coronavirus (COVID-19) exhibit only mild symptoms while some people did not experience any symptoms at all. If many cases go undetected as a result, the virus can stealthily spread across communities while evading the WHO's tally, which experts use for analysis.


"A lot of people are asymptomatic We're only seeing the cases that are confirmed and the cases of people presenting to the hospital because they can't breathe." And at the same time, the people the asymptomatic people who are already ill with coronavirus (COVID-19) to is actively spreading coronavirus to the healthy population.


As some infected individuals also take more time to present symptoms, hospitals around the world may not have been adequately equipped to detect and treat these patients.


Because of this danger due to coronavirus (COVID-19), there is an urgent need to quickly share information that can help us better understand the biology of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) as well so that the researcher will take less time to produce a potential vaccine.


Advantages of using stem cells in the treatment of coronavirus(COVID-19).


Stem cells resist viral attack by the expression of certain genes known as interferon-gamma stimulated genes (ISGs). These are expressed in stem cells before their differentiation.

Stem cells would be expected to survive in the patient even if transplanted into a patient with an active Coronavirus infection.

The biggest advantage of stem cells is they can rejuvenate and regenerate cells in the body through various processes which include:

  • Reduction of inflammation
  • Secretion of substances that protect cells
  • Transfer of mitochondria
  • Reduction of cell death
  • Anti-oxidative effects 
  • Improvement of immune system function.


These combined effects are likely to increase survival in patients infected with Coronavirus. Also, there is direct evidence of stem cell protection against viral infection.

Influenza virus A/H5N1 causes acute lung injury that was reduced by human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in mice and the treatment increased survival 


In a study of more than 44,000 confirmed coronavirus cases in China offers one of the broadest pictures of how the virus operates in humans so far.


This study concludes that men are more likely to die of the virus, with a fatality rate of 2.8% compared to 1.7% for women. Men also represented a slight majority of cases: around 51%. 
chart created with amCharts | amCharts



According to another now research scientists concluded similar results. A study of nearly 140 coronavirus patients at a Wuhan University hospital found that the virus was most likely to affect older men with preexisting health problems. More than 54% of the patients in the study were men, and the median age of patients was 56.


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of cell that can differentiate into a variety of cell types.

The potential use of umbilical cord stem cells (totipotent cell) in the treatment of patients infected with the new coronavirus COVID-19 virus.


Till now 80 new clinical trials are trying to tackle the fast-spreading virus. This research is primarily focused on the use of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) in the treatment of the disease.

Recently scientific research has shown that MSCs have properties that may make them very useful for infections.
exert strong anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory functions.


The unique ability to travel to damaged tissues promotes the regeneration and repair of damaged tissues.
and reduce tissue damage.

Researches going on mice have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of MSCs and their ability to reduce virus-induced lung injury and mortality.

Scientists are planning to use this potential of MSCs cells in treating coronavirus (COVID-19). This can provide a very useful and beneficial effect.

The use of MSCs in these studies have helped to effectively reduce the levels of inflammation as well as the number of inflammatory cells that enter the lungs after contracting a disease such as pneumonia, which may be beneficial in COVID-19 cases.


Numerous trials are going on in investigating the safety and efficiency of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs) therapy for severe pneumonia patients infected with COVID-19.


It is hoped that these stem cells will help to repair damaged tissues and cells due to coronavirus(COVID-19) in the patients’ respiratory system and promote faster healing and recovery of organs.


The UC-MSCs will be administered through an intravenous (IV) infusion, which is delivered directly into the patient’s vein. These patients will be evaluated during the 90 days to 96 weeks following the stem cell treatment.


This evaluation is done for 90 days to 96 weeks because 60-75% of the cells are expected to transform into desirable cells(the injured area where stemcells reached for healing) and rest of the cells may transform to another type of cells and can cause the problem to our organ and even it can be cancerous.


The results of this trial are currently unpublished and no stem cell product has been approved for clinical use so far in patients with respiratory distress.


According to the recent research report on coronavirus (COVID-19), a patient in Kunming arrived in the city on January 21 on a flight from Wuhan, the capital of central China’s Hubei province and the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak.


A week later she fell ill with a mild fever, fatigue, and coughing so she went to a public hospital where she tested positive for coronavirus (Covid-19). From there she was transferred to Baoshan Hospital.


65-year-old woman in Kunming hospital intensive care unit (ICU) showed no adverse effects to her first shot of stem cells and after another two shots of stem cells were up and walking again, researchers say


Just four days after being given her first shot of umbilical cord stem cells, the woman was back on her feet and able to walk. which was published on Thursday on Chinaxiv.org


Another paper published on Chinaxiv on Friday said that seven coronavirus patients in Beijing had been given stem cell therapy and responded in a similar way to the woman in Kunming.


Results ‘could be very important and inspire similar clinical practices in treating critically ill Covid-19 patients’



EBMT (European society for blood and bone marrow transplantation) guidelines: 
FOR CORONAVIRUS TREATMENT BY USING STEMCELLS.

Due to the fast-spreading of COVID-19, the panel of experts of EBMT recommends the following guidelines for recipients and donors of hematopoietic cells before the beginning of any of the transplant procedures (mobilization, apheresis, marrow harvest, conditioning). These guidelines will be updated when new information is obtained about COVID-19 epidemiology and clinical outcome.


Recipients:


1.  In the case of diagnosis of COVID-19: According to ECDC recommendations, patients ought to be deferred for at least three months. However, this is not always possible due to the risk of the underlying disease. Therefore, in patients with high-risk disease, HCT should be deferred until the patient is asymptomatic and has three repeated virus PCR negativity at least one week apart. In patients with low-risk disease, a three-month HCT deferral is recommended.


2. In case of symptoms of an acute respiratory tract infection (fever, cough or other symptoms attributed to viral respiratory infections), patients shall be tested for respiratory viral infections preferably by multiplex PCR and depending on which virus is detected, deferral of HCT should be considered.


3. In case of close contact with a person diagnosed for COVID-19, any transplant procedures (PBSC mobilization, BM harvest, conditioning) shall not be performed within at least 14 preferably 21 days from the last contact. The patient should be closely monitored for the presence of COVID-19, with confirmed PCR negativity.


4. Stem cell transplant patients should refrain from non-necessary travel to areas designated as high-risk areas by the WHO.


5. In case of travel to a high-risk area or a close contact with the person traveling from a high-risk area for COVID-19 (as defined by health authorities*), any transplant procedures (PBSC mobilization, BM harvest, conditioning) should not be performed within at least 14 preferably 21 days from the last contact.

Donors:


1. In the case of a diagnosis of COVID-19, the donor must be excluded from donation. At this time, it is not possible to give recommendations when such an individual can be cleared for donation.


2. In case of close contact with a person diagnosed with COVID-19 donor shall be excluded from donation for at least 21 days. The donor should be closely monitored for the presence of COVID-19.


3. In case of travel to high-risk areas for COVID-19 (as defined by health authorities*) or being close contact with the person traveling from such an area, the donor shall be excluded from donation for at least 21 days.


4. Consider cryopreservation of the graft from the unrelated donor at least 21 days before starting the preparative regimen. Request a piece of updated information about donor health condition 21 days after cell donation.


5. If possible, ensure that an alternative stem cell source will be available.


6.  Donors within 21 days before donation should practice good hygiene (see: Box 1. The WHO recommendations) and avoid crowded places and large group gatherings.


Other therapies are being pursued urgently for coronavirus (COVID-19), but they are months or years away from approval.

OTHER ASPECT FOR TREATMENT OF CORONAVIRUS EXCEPT STEMCELLS.


According to Dr. Anthony Fauci, from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases “to get a vaccine for coronavirus that's practically deployable for people to use, it's going to be at least a year to a year and a half at best.” The doctor said this much time gap because it has to go under several clinical trials.


Gilead Sciences Inc. has just launched a Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the safety and antiviral activity of the drug Remdesivir (which is effective against coronaviruses in animal studies) in patients with moderate COVID-19 and results are expected this May. In the meantime, the lack of promising and available treatments weighs heavily on the international community.


COVID-19 has proven not only to be a highly infectious disease, but also a deeply demoralizing one as well. The more quickly that governments approve the use of clinically safe treatments for COVID-19, the less damage the disease will do both as a life-threatening illness and as a force that threatens to strain international ties, intranational morale, and economic institutions. 



Given the safety of the aforementioned stem cell products and their efficacy, regulatory agencies should have discussions with companies about the compassionate treatment of severe COVID-19 cases with stem cells. 
At the least, such discussions may provide needed optimism to allay the current COVID-19 panic and give patients hope for cures.


Stem cell therapy on coronavirus (COVID-19) Stem cell therapy on coronavirus (COVID-19) Reviewed by OMNIT ARYAN MAURYA on 08 March Rating: 5

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